Blogs >> "从泰戈尔到整体科学的中国之行 From Tagore to Holistic Science in China

"从泰戈尔到整体科学的中国之行 From Tagore to Holistic Science in China

By: Philip Franses
Senior Lecturer in MSC, Holistic Science
Schumacher College

 

泰戈尔在中国Tagore in China

1924年,诺贝尔文学奖获得者泰戈尔在恩厚之(英国达庭顿庄园乡村实验创始人),徐志摩,林徽因等陪同下访问中国。1924,世界在即将来临的剧变中。一方面,现代科学进步到对原子层面的理解,以及像泰戈尔这样跨传统,跨文化,跨主题的世界领导者似乎在边缘提供着对全球人文世界真正意义的理解和实践中。另一方面,这也似乎是最后一年,世界陷入各种战争前(中国内战,中日战争,第二次世界大战等),可能的公开自由对话。

Nobel Prize Winner Rabindranath Tagore visited China in 1924, accompanied by Leonard Elmhirst (founder of Dartington Hall) and Chinese intellectuals Zhimi Xu, Huiyin Lin. In 1924, the world was poised at imminent upheaval. On the one hand, modern scientific advances into the understanding of the atom and the practical example of leaders like Tagore had seemed on the verge of providing a truly humanistic global understanding across traditions, cultures and subjects. On the other hand, it was the last year where such an open conversation could happen, before the world fell into various wars - Chinese civil war, Chinese Japanese war, and then the Second World War.

全世界面临的选择在泰戈尔1924年5月21日山西太原发表《文明与进步》(另标题《文明,法,老子》的演讲中做了预见。离第一颗原子弹投下之前还有20年。

The choice ahead for the world was sparsely summed up in Tagore’s “Civilization and Progress”, May 21st  1924, (still twenty years away from the dropping of the atom bomb).

我们从科学家那里听说,一个原子由一个原子核和围绕着它作有节奏舞蹈的同伴们组成,从而形成一个完美的整体单位。只要一个文明保持健康和强壮,它必然包含着一个有着创造性的中心,和韵律般围绕在周围的成员们。这种关系很是美好的,不仅仅只是功利的。但是,当中心的创造性的源泉,也就是‘自然法则’,被一些征服性的激情所代替,那这个文明酝酿着的巨大能量,就像一颗恒星已经点燃了自己火葬时的柴堆那样,即将毁灭般的爆发。(第170页)

We have heard from the scientists that an atom consists of a nucleus drawing its companions around in a rhythm of dance and thus forms a perfect unit. So long as a civilisation remains healthy and strong it contains at its centre some creative ideal that binds its members in a rhythm of relationship. It is a relationship which is beautiful and not merely utilitarian. When this creative ideal, which is dharma gives place to some overmastering passion, then this civilisation gives birth to giant powers which are like the outburst of conflagration in a star that has lighted its own funeral pyre. (p.170)

只有当原子核是‘自然法则’中有生命力的情操,带领着彼此间的合作和分享着生命中的恩赐,这个整体单位才能被维持。(第173页)

That spirit of the unit is only maintained when its nucleus is some living sentiment of dharma, leading to cooperation and a common sharing of life’s gifts. (Tagore, p.173)

毁灭与创造Destruction and creation

1945,当美国在日本扔下两枚原子弹时,‘知识’宣称自己是最强大的,人类对世界的管理里,权力可将其碎片化为虚无。

In 1945 when America dropped two nuclear bombs on Japanese cities, knowledge declared itself all powerful and humankind took on the governance of a world with the power to fragment it to nothing. 

分裂的原子核(原子弹爆炸的原理)变成了毁灭的阴影,黑暗着我们整个社会的未来前景,不知不觉中,迫使我们不断安抚自己,‘科学之神’已经变成了可怕的时尚。导致了一种恋物,概念化和标签化的文化,企图通过了解所有,我们就可以解除那些威胁‘人类知识核心’的可怕。

The splitting of the nucleus of the atom has been a shadow of destruction darkening our whole social outlook, and forcing us to ever placate the gods of science which we unwittingly awoke in such terrible fashion. It has led to a culture fixated on things, concepts and labels, as if by understanding everything, we might disarm the terrible threat at the centre of our knowledge.

在阴阳混沌交织对抗的困境里,“啊哈”一声,电光火石间,从外面进来了一股力量,所有未知的问题都有了新的解答。充满无限可能性的世界逐渐呈现了它新的模样。这醍醐灌顶的瞬间不仅仅是因为头脑里出现了新的思维模式,更是对世界真真切切的‘体悟’,这种人之所以为人的‘心的状态’才是所有发生事情的基础。

In this confrontation of darkness and light, the world of possibility formed about its own identity of becoming. Something entered into a situation that was stuck, as if from outside, and resolved in the light of liberation of that whole “aha” sense, all the open questions in a new illumination. This moment of unlocking the puzzle was not simply thought opening up a box with a new conceptual map. It was experience finding in the world, the existential ground of being as the basis on which all happening is predicated.

我们不用再恐惧科技,就好像我们的大脑解除了对这具有毁灭性的人造怪物需要被控制的束缚。因为正如歌德所讲的,我们科学的基础,是‘在体经验’在关键时刻证明其自身价值。 为了了解世界的形态我们需要‘在体经验’。(菲利普,第222页)

We do not have to be frightened anymore by technology as if our mind has unleashed some artificial monster of destruction we have to control. For the basis of our science, as Goethe showed, is about the moment of resolution in which experience is illuminated in the worth of all that is. It is to experience that we need to look to know the pattern of the world! (Franses, p. 222)

整体科学的背景Background to Holistic Science

1925年,泰戈尔鼓励恩厚之夫妇在英国建立达庭顿庄园(Dartington Hall)乡村建设实验,在生活实践里继续扩展这样的全球对话。达庭顿创建了各种新型教育实验。最新一次教育实验是1991创立的舒马赫学院。 舒马赫学院的建立是一种生态学,整体科学,转型经济的创新实践。1998年,‘整体科学’的研究生课程正式开始。

In 1925 Tagore encouraged Leonard and Dorothy Elmhirst to establish Dartington Hall, to extend this global conversation and experiment in living. Dartington housed various educational experiments, the latest being in 1991, when Schumacher College was set up as a pioneering educational venture looking into the themes of ecology, science and economics. In 1998, a unique masters programme in Holistic Science began.

‘整体科学(holistic science)’和主流科学教育之间的一个关键区别是,现代学术界越来越多只注重‘表露无遗(explicit)’,可被测量的。当你写一篇学术论文时,你必须非常明确的表达你在研究什么。你必须非常明确的说出你要研究的主题,你所问的问题,引用已写的文献,并预见工作的未来结果。‘整体科学’则侧重于‘内在的(implicit )’,不可言状的,与生俱来的生命本身。‘整体科学’在探索如何与这些‘不可言状’相遇的方法。‘整体科学’的根基来自一种完全不同于主流科学的歌德科学(1749-1832),比如如何和一株植物相遇,去探索它的医药特性,但不是马上从可测量数据的角度入手怎样标记蛋白质或者组成植物的细胞。

A key difference between Holistic Science and main stream education is that modern academia has drifted more and more into the explicit. When you write an academic paper, you have to be very explicit about what you are looking at.  You have to name exactly the subject of your investigation, the question you are asking, quote the literature that has been written and foresee the outcomes of the work. Holistic Science focuses very much on the implicit, what cannot be spoken, what is innate to life itself. It searches for the methods we can develop in order to meet what is implicit. The course has its roots in the fundamentally different science of Goethe (1749-1832), who developed a methodology about how to meet the implicit in say a plant, and maybe discover its medicinal properties, without immediately journeying through the explicit, of how to label the proteins, the cells that make up the plant.  

跨文化对话A dialogue of cultures

直到现在,世界停止了分裂,有效地恢复了跨文化的对话。自1924以来第一次,在当前生态危机的威胁下,印度,中国,日本,欧洲的前沿各界,再次打开了对话的大门和当年泰戈尔希望看到的研究性工作。

Only now has the fragmentation of the world stilled sufficiently to allow a resumption of the dialogue across cultures. For the first time since 1924, in the current threat of the ecological crisis, the frontiers of India, China, Japan, Europe are again open to conduct the dialogue and work of research that Tagore had urged.

整体科学的天性是它并不从一开始就定义或强加一个命令或寻求到达一个固定的点。整体科学的发展本身就体现了其所倡导的有机随性的形成过程。这是一个通过有信念的行动去全身心投入到发现“整体性”的旅程。因此,为了与整体科学这个主题的天性吻合,这次亚洲之旅会围绕这些问题,“什么是整体科学,”和“与今天是如何相关的?’

The nature of Holistic Science is that is does not begin with a definition or impose an order or seek to arrive at a fixed endpoint. The development of Holistic Science has shared the organic origin of form it teaches. It is a journey to discover “wholeness” through the act-of-faith of committing to the inquiry wholly. It is thus in keeping with the nature of the subject to be on this tour around the question, “What is Holistic Science,” and “How is it relevant today?”

今年夏天,来自日本、韩国和中国的整体科学硕士课程毕业校友们邀请我在这个问题上与他们一起继续探索,“什么是全然?’。他们组织了一系列的讲座、研讨会和参访的计划。对我们来说,令人兴奋的挑战是,我们不同的文化间怎么可以携手迈入全然,以走出这个我们处在的碎片式的文化现状

This summer, alumni of the Masters in Holistic Science from Japan, Korea and China have invited me to work with them on the question, “What is Wholeness?” They have organised a programme of talks, workshops and visits. The exciting challenge for us is to work on how these different cultures share the same movement to wholeness out of the cultural state of fragmentation we are now in.

在日本三周和汉城短暂停留后,我们由四川标榜学院邀请前往中国。这一所教育9000个大学生的职业院校,学习传统技能,回归与大地工作。中国的“生态文明”的号召似乎在回应泰戈尔当年的讲话。

After this 3 weeks in Japan and brief stop over in Seoul, we are travelling to China, being hosted by Polus College, which is teaching 9000 undergraduates to learn skills of returning to and working with the land. Their notion of an “Ecological Civilisation” in China is a strange echo of Tagore’s words.

在北京的行程,由2015整体科学硕士毕业生何龙翔与张兰英,范紫微一起组织。何龙翔现在在重庆西南大学的乡村建设学院工作。在北京,我们将与北京师范大学的田松教授和与他一起在科学哲学生态圈工作的学者们一起探索整体科学与古老传统智慧,把科学重新与我们的生活体验相连。整体科学是连接神学和科学的桥梁,通过存在的质地来探索全然,因此与传统的中国信仰,例如道教有很多关联。我们在中国也将与道家师父们一起探索道学与现代科学之间的联系。这在中国还很活跃的问题与整体科学作为一种另样的理解来走出现代科学困境的崛起很相关。

The China trip is being organised by He Longxiang( MSc 2015) along with Ziwei Fan and Lanying Zhang. He Longxiang is now working at Chongqing Southwest University on the Rural Reconstruction movement. In Beijing we will research with Professor Tian Song and colleagues on the aims of Holistic Science and ancient traditional wisdom to connect science again to our experience of life.  Holistic Science bridges theology and science, by addressing wholeness in the very fabric of existence, and thus has many associations with traditional Chinese beliefs as Taoism. Our time in China will include a stay with the Taoist monks to explore the connection of Taoism and modern scientific understandings. The questions alive in China are especially relevant to the arising of Holistic Science as an alternative understanding out of modern day scientific challenges.

分裂和隔绝在1924年被选成为历史主导所造成的种种后果,使泰戈尔寻找能够把握住多样性的全然精神的跨文化项目在今天看来更是势在必行。

The consequences of the choice for fragmentation in 1924, make Tagore’s cross-cultural project to find the spirit of the unit that can hold again the diverse stories even more imperative today.

‘整体科学’的学术期刊刚刚发表了它的第九期。这期的题目为‘教育学’,正好是我们将在日本和中国行程中讨论的核心。在这期中的重要贡献者来自舒马赫学院整体科学系,来自世界各地的学生,科学家,实践者们,一起探索创造一个空间给有生机和生命的教育去萌芽。更多信息和订阅,请访问:www.holisticsciencejournal.co.uk

The Holistic Science Journal has just published its 9th issue. The issue is titled Pedagogy, which forms an essential background to what we are discussing across the weeks in Japan and China. Essential contributions in this issue are from Holistic Science faculty at Schumacher College, students, scientists and practitioners from across the world, exploring the nature of creating space for a Pedagogy that is alive and enlivens. For more information and to subscribe, visit: www.holisticsciencejournal.co.uk

    Philip Franses

philip@schumachercollege.org.uk

 

Franses, P. (2015) Time, Light and the Dice of Creation; Through Paradox in Physics to a New Order, Floris Books

Tagore R. (1924) “Civilisation and Progress” from “Talks in China”, pre-edition, Devon Heritage Centre